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The sport diving started in the late 1950’s in Czechoslovakia with homemade units using aircraft oxygen diluter regulators by Germany's Luftwaffe.

                                                                                                 Original KP-14 (German Air Force)


After the World War II, similars of these oxygen diluter regulatros were  produced in Russia and Czechoslovakia for their fighter jets. These 0xygen regulators were designated as KP 14.

People interested in scuba diving serched for those oxygen diluter regulators to built a scuba equipment. 

                                                                                         Homemade construction with KP-14 (P.Katz) 


The KP-14 regulator had two diaphragms and a separate reduction valve, which  reduced the pression from 150 bars to 9 bars. The reduction valve was between the demand valve and the oxygen cylinder. It was produced hundreds of different  designs/models using the KP-14

In the late 1950's or early 1960, Josef Voríšek(1923-2012) made a KP-14 regulator that really stood out from the rest. He was able to insert the first stage, a watertight pressure gauge and the manifold connection for two cylinders inside the demand valve. He also added a connection for a third smaller cylinder.  Josef Vorisek was the designer of the Saturn regulator (Meva-Saturn). 

                                                                                             Set of KP-14 by Josef Voríšek (P.Katz)


                                                                                                     Josef Voríšek in 2011 (P.Katz)



1. The Journal of Diving History - Volume 19, Issue 4 - Number 69 - Fall 2011 - Peter Katz;

2. Saturn - die Zweischlauch-Legende aus der CSSR - Von Dr.-Ing L. Seveke, D. Surani;



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